Forestry Services

Plantations International, Forestry, Orchards and Farming Services Management is about integrating the whole ecosystem to achieve set objectives for the forest or land owner’s requirement for the bush land area. Forest management often involves a multi-disciplinary approach where day-to-day variables, such as weather, soil and pests need to be taken into consideration for a long period of time.

Planning is subsequently a large part of forest management. Short term goals for each season of a year must be set within a long term planning time frame to ensure the end result is achieved.

Registered Professional Forester are qualified foresters recognized for their high level of expertise and up to date qualifications with experience in general practicing forestry.

Plantations International Forestry offers forestry services in the following areas:

  • plantation feasibility studies and site assessment
  • plantation design
  • management plans development
  • contractor and contract management
  • advice on harvesting of plantations
  • marketing and harvesting of forest products
  • financial evaluation of forestry investments
  • product evaluation and inventory assessments
  • revegetation
  • erosion control and dust suppression
  • management of native forests on private land
  • management of remnant bushland
  • environmental management
  • dieback management.

For a complete list of services please check below:

pakkaland preparation and Planting

Adequate soil preparation facilitates the growth and development of an extensive root system. Plants will then have a larger volume of soil from which to draw water and nutrients, reducing the chance of moisture and nutrient stress.

Land preparation is important to ensure that the field is ready for planting. A well-prepared field controls weeds, recycles plant nutrients, and provides a soft soil mass for transplanting and a suitable soil surface for direct seeding.

Land preparation covers a wide range of practices from zero-tillage or minimum tillage which minimizes soil disturbance through to a totally ‘puddled’ soil which actually destroys soil structure.

It typically involves (1) plowing to “till” or dig-up, mix, and overturn the soil; (2) harrowing to break the soil clods into smaller mass and incorporate plant residue, and (3) leveling the field.

Functions of soil tillage

  • Prepare seedbed
  • Manage crop residues
  • Incorporate fertilizers and agro-chemicals
  • Control weeds
  • De-compact dense layers
  • Increase water infiltration
  • Shape the soil surface (levelling, ridging)

Unfortunately, the method used to achieve any of the above mentioned objectives of tillage might produce a conflict with the other objectives. Each additional tillage operation for weed control also buries more residues and exposes moist soil to the surface, causing additional water loss. As the number of tillage operations is increased, the aggregation of soil is decreased leaving the soil more vulnerable for soil erosion (Godwin, 1990).

In this way, tillage operations will eventually have negative effects on the soil productivity and the economic return of the crops. They are responsible for the destruction of the soil and crop residues. Tillage also affects the availability of water and nutrients in the soil. Among the costs of tillage one should also count:

  • Increased erosion and loss of fertility.
  • Increased evaporation and moisture loss.
  • Decreased capability of the soil to hold water.

Eroded soil can move on to other places, like ditches, lakes and reservoirs, water harvesting tanks or to the neighbor’s field, taking with it organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and pesticides. Preventive measures, like the construction of terraces, are expensive. It is far more effective and cheaper to refrain from tillage and conserve the residues on the soil surface.

Well-drained, sandy loam soils are ideal for production. Poorly drained soils usually result in reduced functional root area, poor plant growth and low yields.

Hire an expert if in doubt as it will save you a fortune in lost production and yields.

offsideFarm & plantation Planning

Plantations International knows that mistakes made in planning and planting a plantation or farm cannot easily be reversed. Before establishing a new farm or plantation block, it is important to carefully assess all the factors that will ultimately affect quality and sustainability. Proper planning includes evaluations of business goals, management style, site characteristics, and market potential.

Optimal site preparation and planting involve thinking in terms of managing tree roots for increased performance. Physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil must all be considered. Soil structure is a major concern on a new site. A replant site requires two to three years of crop rotations to replenish organic matter and avoid tree mortality or stunted growth.

Topsoil and subsoil samples also are collected at this time for analysis of pH, nutrient imbalances, and organic matter content. Additional site considerations include access to water for irrigation and spraying, the presence of weeds that serve as reservoirs for plant viruses, and the potential for hail or other weather-related disasters.

Several studies show that time of planting greatly affects initial tree growth. Early planted trees have increased shoot numbers and length, and fewer trees become spur-bound or stunted.

Systematic Coverage

Planters need to systematically approach, layout and plant a piece of land with proper density and quality. There is something like 27 ways you can plant a tree incorrectly and there is only one correct way.


Each tree is planted in a prepared microsite. A microsite is a piece of the ground that has been identified by the planter as being well suited for growth. Furthermore, on many projects, the microsite must be prepared by the planter by removing, or less commonly, adding debris.

Planting the Tree

After the microsite has been prepared, the planter uses their tree planting shovel to open a slit in the ground into which the tree is skillfully inserted so the roots stay nice and straight. The hole is closed with a hand or a foot, and the planter is off to find their next microsite.

The goal of advance planning and site preparation is to ensure early and regular crops of high value trees, orchards or crops for the life span of your crops. Pre-plant use of sustainable management practices guarantees that a site will support the current crops and generations to come.

Hydrogeological services, Soil testing and surveys

Our holistic view of water helps us address the concerns of communities and industries around the world, which face the threats of water scarcity and water stress. We respond by innovating in areas such as integrated catchment management and aquifer storage to help ensure sustainable water resources.

Our understanding of each stage in the water cycle helps clients secure safe, reliable sources of water for farms, orchards and plantations, while minimizing impact on the environment. Our integrated skills all come into play when we assist clients to plan, design and deliver water t to meet the most unique requirements.

The availability of water in the right quantity and quality is vital to meet the ever growing demand for agricultural purposes. We provide specialist hydrological and hydrogeological services to a number of clients around the world for applications ranging from finding new water supplies to irrigated farms, orchards and plantations to conducting studies to support groundwater investigations and modelling.

Soil testing and surveys Plantations International knows that to develop optimal land use systems, sound knowledge of soil characteristics is imperative. The determination of pH values is one of the essential, and most relevant measurements made in soil. Soil pH affects many soil properties such as the availability of plant nutrients or the occurrence of toxic ions like aluminum for example. From the measurement of the soil pH the following general conclusions can be drawn. Acid sulfates may be present, the exchangeable hydrogen present. The soil maybe contains significant amounts of soluble salts, the amount of sodium (alkali soil).

In agriculture, a soil test is the analysis of a soil sample to determine nutrient and contaminated content, composition, and other characteristics such as the acidity or pH level. A soil test can determine fertility, or the expected growth potential of the soil which indicates nutrient deficiencies, potential toxicities from excessive fertility and inhibitions from the presence of non-essential trace minerals. The test is used to mimic the function of roots to assimilate minerals. The expected rate of growth is modeled by the Law of the Maximum. Plantations International recommends that a soil test contains 10-20 sample points for every 40 acres of field. As soil nutrients vary with depth and soil components change with time, the depth and timing of a sample may also affect results.

Composite sampling can be performed by combining soil from several locations prior to analysis. This is a common procedure, but should be used judiciously to avoid skewing results. This procedure must be done so that government sampling requirements are met. A reference map should be created to record the location and quantity of field samples in order to properly interpret test results.

Laboratory tests often check for plant nutrients in three categories:

Major nutrients: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K)

Secondary nutrients: sulfur, calcium, magnesium

Minor nutrients: iron, manganese, copper, zinc, boron, molybdenum, chlorine.

Soil testing is used to facilitate fertilizer composition and dosage selection for land employed in both agricultural and horticultural industries.

labWater quality and testing

Plantations International provide water testing services for water quality. Water quality analysis is provided for farms, orchards and plantations. Water testing includes trace analysis capabilities.

Basic Irrigation Suitability

  • pH
  • Electric Conductivity
  • Calcium
  • Nitrate-N
  • Nitrite-N
  • Magnesium
  • Sodium
  • Potassium
  • Chloride
  • Sulphate
  • Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
  • Hardness
  • Bicarbonate

The quality of groundwater can affect not only our health, but also society and the economy. Groundwater contamination can adversely affect property values, the image of a community, economic development, and the overall quality of life we all share. Clean water at reasonable cost is essential and in many parts of the country, groundwater is the only economical water source available. Once groundwater has been contaminated, it is usually very difficult and costly to clean. Even small contamination sites often cost many thousands of dollars to cleanup.

A “contaminant” or “pollutant” in water could be any material other than water that is dissolved or mixed into water, but it is usually used to refer to a substance in water that might be harmful or a nuisance. It is important to keep in mind that “the dose makes the poison”. A substance that is neutral or helpful in low amounts or concentrations could be harmful at much higher amounts or concentrations. Also, chemicals vary tremendously in toxicity. Some are never found in high enough concentrations or consumed in large enough amounts to cause harm; others may be toxic even when they are very diluted in water or very rarely consumed. Some substances are acute toxins (cause harm rapidly), and others are chronic toxins (the harm shows up more slowly over time because of the type of chemical and/or the total exposure over time).

Water is an unusually good solvent, which means many different kinds of materials can be dissolved in it. Solid particles and small organisms can also be suspended in water. Except in certain controlled laboratory settings, what we think of as water is never 100% H2O. For example, naturally occurring gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide will dissolve in to the water. Water usually contains some dissolved gases, plus dissolved charged particles (ions) such as sodium, calcium, and iron. The composition of water in natural settings will reflect the rocks and soils through which water has passed, the organisms living in or near the water, and human activities.

Plantations International water analysis capabilities vary by location. please contact us.

Pre-harvest financing

Farmers often face difficulty obtaining pre-harvest financing for production because they are unable to satisfy the demands of lenders for risk-managing collateral. An agrarian receipt is essentially a promise to supply agricultural products or to make payment after the sale of agricultural products in future in return for getting resources (financial or commodity) at the time of receipts issuance for business activities.

A properly functioning system for agrarian receipts makes agricultural financing more attractive for potential creditors and improves farmers’ access to pre-harvest financing from banks, agricultural input suppliers, traders, and processors.

While the details of this financing system will be adapted to each country’s specific needs, a system for agrarian receipts will generally possess some key characteristics:

  • The receipt itself is a bond issued by farmers, producers, or farmers’ cooperatives, whereby the issuer promises to deliver agricultural products or a financial sum at a given time.
  • Being subject to the promissory note rules, the issuer’s grounds for refusing to honor his or her obligations are strictly limited.
  • A system of registration publicizes the existence of the bond to the public.
  • Commonly, agrarian receipts are secured by a security right created over the future products or a mortgage over the farming land as chosen by the contracting parties.
  • Parties may agree on out-of-court enforcement.

The major advantage of a well-functioning agrarian receipt system is the reduction of risks for potential lenders. Out-of-court enforcement guarantees rapid execution and avoids long, uncertain court proceedings. Agrarian receipts may further provide alternative liquid collateral where the underlying land has already been mortgaged, and allow lenders to hedge their price risk.

Notably, agrarian receipts were successfully introduced in Brazil in 1994 with the creation of the CPR (Cedula de Produto Rural – Certificate of Agricultural Product) and helped to mobilize private financing of agriculture after a reduction in government involvement in agricultural finance. Ten years after their introduction, an estimated 5 billion US-dollars per year in CPRs were negotiated over and under the counter.

More recently, several countries in Eastern Europe, with FAO and/or EBRD assistance, have embarked on introducing pre-harvest financing instruments in form of agrarian receipts in their legislation, tailored to specific country conditions and legal traditions.

The future of farming is in outsourcing.

Plantations International does all the farming operations, including planting, fertilizers, spraying, irrigation, harvesting, storage, transportation and sales, you can turn to us for all your plantation and farming needs.

Plantations International offer a comprehensive range of out-sourcing on farms, orchards and plantations. More and more agriculture businesses are realizing the advantages of outsourcing their planting, maintenance and harvesting, functions to Plantations International and benefiting by lowering their operating costs, improving quality and quantity of crops with better information, higher returns and access along with our exceptional customer support.

Plantations International uses Tactical Harvest Planning to increase your returns. Tactical harvest planning consists in scheduling harvest operations across the planning horizon that can go from months to years. The available resources (manpower and equipment) are assigned to the harvesting area. The tactical plan is built by our harvest managers upon information about targeted crops and demand levels.

Plantations International provides realistic projections and consultancy based on real numbers and figures.

Plantation management:

Technical guidelines: Company scientists will provide regular technical support to manage irrigation, fertigation, and disease and pest management.
Field inspections: Field officers will carry out periodical inspections to examine the growth of trees and recommend the necessary steps to be taken.
General Supports: The company carries out various activities to be in regular touch with the planters, which impacts plantation management.

Wet-Dry Nursery Development and Operation

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an approach to managing insects, mites, pathogens, nematodes, weeds, and other pests in which multiple practices are implemented throughout the entire production period of the crop. IPM can be viewed as a series of steps that is repeated or modified as needed: Prevention/avoidance, Monitoring, Decision making, Intervention, Evaluation.

IPM includes judicious use of pesticides in careful coordination with other pest management practices. Restricted labeling of pesticides, pest resistance, safety to nursery personnel, and environmental issues are all concerns to Plantations International.

In addition, nursery crop production requires highly technical and specialized production skills, particularly with respect to propagation. In addition to a fundamental and practical understanding of plants and how they grow, nursery operators require an understanding of the specific growing requirements of each crop and how these growing conditions can be managed to achieve efficient production. The importance of the best quality planting material as an initial investment is a well realized factor for persons engaged in Horticulture field. So nurseries have great demand for the production of plants, bulbs, rhizomes, suckers & grafts. But in general good quality & assured planting material at reasonable price is not available and we at Plantations International invest in growing our future plants under controlled conditions.

Site location – Factors to be considered when evaluating tree nursery sites include:

  • soil type and conditions
  • environmental conditions including rainfall, wind and slope of the land
  •  access to water for irrigation
  • proximity to markets
  • access to good roads
  • access to labor
  • room for future expansion
  • zoning requirements or limitations
  • potential environmental hazards such as industrial pollution or contaminated water

Equipment requirements

  • The basic requirements for a nursery operation include:
  • Irrigation equipment
  • Field equipment such as tractors, trailers and cropping equipment
  • Sprayers for control of weeds, insects and diseases
  • Sterile rooms
  • Multiplication processes
  • Office equipment

Plantations International explains that nurseries are classified into the following types:

Seedling nursery: A nursery which has only seedling beds, i.e., in which seedlings only are raised, no transplanting being done is called seedling nursery.

Transplant nursery: A nursery which has only transplant beds, in which seedlings are transplanted for preparation for forest planting is called transplant nursery.

Dual nursery: A nursery that combines both a seedling and transplant nursery.

Plantations International’s Permanent Nurseries are nursery’s that are maintained for supplying nursery plants for a long time on a permanent basis. It is intended to meet the requirements of one or more ranges and it is relatively larger in extent.

Main features

  • Fit for large and intensive work and intensively managed
  • Established where all the facilities are available, i.e., easy supervision, communication facilities, labors, etc.
  • Intensive Manuring and soil working are done in perpetuity.
  • Used for large scale forestry and farming projects, and/ or distribution to the villagers under community and private forestry program.
  • A large labor forces, tools and equipment are available.
  • Original cost of formation is high but is cheaper in the long run.
  • Skilled supervision 7 days a week.


Varieties of planting stocks supply; such as root- shoot cuttings, grafted plants, layering, budding, poly-pot seedlings, etc.

Each nursery crop requires specific growing practices to improve the quality of the plant. These practices include pruning, as well as control of weeds, insects and diseases.

  • Duration of service life is long and production cost is reasonable.
  • Meet the requirement of more ranges.
  • Supervision cost is low and can be easily supervised.
  • Easy transport of nursery stocks due to nearness of roads.
  • Plants are raised year after year for a long time on same site.

Key production requirements in producing nursery crops from seed include the following:

  • A good source of seed from a hardy location
  • Proper storage conditions for each crop species to maintain seed viability (key requirements are moisture content, storage temperature and relative humidity)
  • seed treatments to break the dormancy of the seeds germination requirements.

Plantations International best management practices empower our container and field-grown plant production to operate at a higher level of efficiency and effectiveness while implementing proactive management practices necessary to produce plants with minimal environmental impact.

Bore-well drilling, Dams and ponds for irrigation

To utilize land resources optimally for more productive agriculture bore-wells, dams, ponds and rain water catchment is vital to Plantations International commitment to sustainable forestry management.

Our business is heavily dependent on water: our plantations require water for continuity; our employees and local community neighbors rely on clean and drinkable water to sustain their lives and livelihoods.

Chemical pollutants and agricultural waste compromise water quality and pose a threat to the entire ecosystem. Many unknown environmental risks have arisen from the widespread use of chemicals and inappropriate management of agricultural wastes. We Plantations International are therefore committed to sound water management practices in ensuring that the quality of the local water resources is not compromised.

In the management of our plantations, we established practices that minimize soil erosion, using techniques such as adequate ground cover. Excessive soil erosion encourages loading of watercourses and disturbs aquatic ecosystems.

Through an integrated pest management approach (IPM), we avoid excessive use of chemicals which may contaminate the soil and subsequently surface and groundwater. IPM refers to the scientific approach which aims to reduce the use of inorganic pesticides through biological control which attempts to utilize the pests’ natural enemies or modify the environment to favor its natural enemies. This will mean a lower cost of production and a more ecologically-friendly method.

Advantages of irrigation

  • Reduces the drought period.
  • Enhances the vegetative woods.
  • Provides a reliable insurance cover against crop failure for the coming year.
  • Increases the beneficial microbial content of the soil.
  • Increases the organic matter decomposition in soil insitu because of the prevailing high temperatures.
  • Provides the much needed micro climate, enabling the root zone to function effectively.

Improves the nutrient uptake.

Sub-surface drip irrigation SDI and Above ground irrigation systems

An efficient irrigation system is essential to maintaining and enhancing a healthy plantation, or orchard.  Plantations International primarily uses 3 different systems for irrigation equipment. Sprinkler irrigation, flood irrigation and Subsurface Drip Irrigation.

Sub Surface is an irrigation management tool that enables precise control over the root zone environment of your crop. This control often results in consistently high yields. In addition, better water and fertilizer management help reduce fertilizer inputs, water usage and runoff. In regions where water supplies are severely limited, there may be no actual water savings, but rather simply an increase in production while using the same amount of water as before. In very arid regions or on sandy soils, the preferred method is to apply the irrigation water as slowly as possible.

Modern drip irrigation has arguably become the world’s most valued innovation in agriculture since the invention of the impact sprinkler in the 1930s, which offered the first practical alternative to surface irrigation.

What is SDI or SSI

Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is the irrigation of crops through buried plastic tubes containing embedded emitters located at regular spacing. SDI is most widely used for the irrigation of annual or permanent row and field crops, but it can be used for any crop and most tree plantations.

Subsurface drip irrigation provides the ultimate in water use efficiency for open-field agriculture, often resulting in water savings of 25-50% compared to flood irrigation. The use of SDI offers many other advantages for crop production, including less nitrate leaching compared to surface irrigation, higher yields, a dry soil surface for improved weed control and crop health, the ability to apply water and nutrients to the most active part of the root zone, protection of drip lines from damage due to cultivation and other operations, and the ability to safely irrigate with wastewater while preventing human contact.

The advantages of drip irrigation

  • Fertilizer and nutrient loss is minimized due to localized application and reduced leaching.
  • Water application efficiency is high if managed correctly
  • Field levelling is not necessary.
  • Fields with irregular shapes are easily accommodated.
  • Recycled non-potable water can be safely used.
  • Moisture within the root zone can be maintained at field capacity.
  • Soil type plays less important role in frequency of irrigation.
  • Soil erosion is lessened.
  • Weed growth is lessened.
  • Water distribution is highly uniform, controlled by output of each nozzle.
  • Labor cost is less than other irrigation methods.
  • Variation in supply can be regulated by regulating the valves and drippers.
  • Fertigation can easily be included with minimal waste of fertilizers.
  • Foliage remains dry, reducing the risk of disease.
  • Usually operated at lower pressure than other types of pressurized irrigation, reducing energy costs.

Center pivots and furrow irrigation

Center pivot irrigation is a form of overhead sprinkler irrigation consisting of several segments of pipe joined together and supported by trusses, mounted on wheeled towers with sprinklers positioned along its length. The machine moves in a circular pattern and is fed with water from the pivot point at the center of the circle. The outside set of wheels sets the master pace for the rotation (typically once every three days). The inner sets of wheels are mounted at hubs between two segments and use angle sensors to detect when the bend at the joint exceeds a certain threshold, and thus, the wheels should be rotated to keep the segments aligned. Center pivots are typically less than 1600 feet (500 meters) in length (circle radius) with the most common size being the standard 1/4 mile (400 m) machine.

To achieve uniform application, center pivots require an even emitter flow rate across the radius of the machine. Since the outer-most spans (or towers) travel farther in a given time period than the innermost spans, nozzle sizes are smallest at the inner spans and increase with distance from the pivot point. Aerial views show fields of circles created by the watery tracings of “quarter- or half-mile of the center-pivot irrigation pipe,” created by center pivot irrigators which use “hundreds and sometimes thousands of gallons a minute.”

Most center pivot systems now have drops hanging from a u-shaped pipe called a gooseneck attached at the top of the pipe with sprinkler heads that are positioned a few feet above the crop, thus limiting evaporative losses and wind drift. There are many different nozzle configurations available including static plate, moving plate and part circle. Pressure regulators are typically installed upstream of each nozzle to ensure each is operating at the correct design pressure.

Drops can also be used with drag hoses or bubblers that deposit the water directly on the ground between crops. This type of system is known as LEPA (Low Energy Precision Application) and is often associated with the construction of small dams along the furrow length (termed furrow diking. Crops may be planted in straight rows or are sometimes planted in circles to conform to the travel of the irrigation system

Originally, most center pivots were water-powered. These were replaced by hydraulic systems and electric motor-driven systems. Most systems today are driven by an electric motor mounted at each tower.

For a center pivot to be used, the terrain needs to be reasonably flat; but one major advantage of center pivots over alternative systems is the ability to function in undulating country. This advantage has resulted in increased irrigated acreage and water use in some areas.


The center-pivot irrigation system is considered to be a highly efficient system which helps conserve water.

Center pivot irrigation typically uses less water compared to many surface irrigation and furrow irrigation techniques, which reduces the expenditure of and conserves water. It also helps to reduce labor costs compared to some ground irrigation techniques, which are often more labor-intensive. Some ground irrigation techniques involve the digging of channels on the land for the water to flow, whereas the use of center-pivot irrigation can reduce the amount of soil tillage that occurs and helps to reduce water runoff and soil erosion that can occur with ground irrigation. Less tillage encourages more organic materials and crop residue to decompose back into the soil, and reduces soil compaction.

Risks: Shrinking Irreplaceable Aquifers

It is now understood that groundwater level elevation decreases when the rate of extraction by irrigation exceeds the rate of recharge. At some places, the water table was measured to drop more than five feet (1.5 m) per year at the time of maximum extraction. In extreme cases, the deepening of wells was required to reach the steadily falling water table. In the 21st century, recognition of the significance of the Ogallala Aquifer (also known as the High Plains Aquifer) has led to increased coverage from regional and international journalists.

By 2013 it was shown that as the water consumption efficiency of the center-pivot irrigator improved over the years, farmers planted more intensively, irrigated more land, and grew thirstier crops.

Surface irrigation

Surface irrigation is defined as the group of application techniques where water is applied and distributed over the soil surface by gravity. It is by far the most common form of irrigation throughout the world and has been practiced in many areas virtually unchanged for thousands of years.

Surface irrigation is often referred to as flood irrigation, implying that the water distribution is uncontrolled and therefore, inherently inefficient. In reality, some of the irrigation practices grouped under this name involve a significant degree of management (for example surge irrigation). Surface irrigation comes in three major types; level basin, furrow and border strip.

Plantlets and seed procurement

Seed orchards are a common method of mass-multiplication for transferring genetically improved material from breeding populations to production populations (forests) and in this sense are often referred to as “multiplication” populations. A seed orchard is often composed of grafts (vegetative copies) of selected genotypes, but seedling seed orchards also occur mainly to combine orchard with progeny testing. Seed orchards are the strong link between breeding programs and plantation establishment. They are designed and managed to produce seeds of superior genetic quality compared to those obtained from seed production areas, seed stands, or unimproved stands.

In first generation seed orchards, the parents usually are phenotypically-selected trees. In advanced generation seed orchards, the seed orchards are harvesting the benefits generated by tree breeding and the parents may be selected among the tested clones or families. It is efficient to synchronize the productive live cycle of the seed orchards with the cycle time of the breeding population. In the seed orchard, the trees can be arranged in a design to keep the related individuals or cloned copies apart from each other. Seed orchards are the delivery vehicle for genetic improvement programs where the trade-off between genetic gain and diversity is the most important concern. The genetic gain of seed orchard crops depends primarily on the genetic superiority of the orchard parents, the gametic contribution to the resultant seed crops, and pollen contamination from outside seed orchards

In addition to our seed orchids we contract farms for Seed Procurement to ensure quality input for maintaining a sound system for effective distribution of quality seed. The greater emphasis has to be placed on procurement ensuring compliance with the set best industry practices for production and multiplication of seed.

Plantations International created a means by engaging growers with large scale cultivatable area to multiply and produce certified seed, engage growers after survey of their properties by virtue of a legal binding agreement. These growers after registration with the Plantations International are provided with basic seed of major crops for multiplication and production of certified seed. The quality and purity of the seed is tested ad monitored at various stages by the continuous involvement of Plantations International. The certified seed produced by the grower is purchased by Plantations International at the rate agreed in the agreement for future supply.

The achievement of high crop yields is indirectly dependent upon the stringent controls exercised over the purchased quantities to ensure that they are free of inert matter and waste. The procurement department of Plantations International is vested with the responsibility to purchase high quality seed with the lowest percentage of inert matter. The variety wise procurement target is on the basis of demand and supply position of the relevant crop and approved by the committee.

Tissue Culture

Tissue culture, an important area of biotechnology can be use to improve the productivity of planting material through enhanced availability of identified planting stock with desired traits.

Micro propagation is one of the important contribution of Plant Tissue Culture to commercial plant propagation and has vast significance. The name micro propagation derives Item the miniature shoots/plantlets initially produced horn this method of plant propagation. Micro propagation is the true to type propagation of selected genotype using in vitro culture technique. This technique provides a rapid reliable system for a production of large number of genetically uniform disease free plantlets.


Preparation of plant tissue for tissue culture is performed under aseptic conditions under HEPA filtered air provided by a laminar flow cabinet. Thereafter, the tissue is grown in sterile containers such as petri dishes or flasks in a growth room with controlled temperature and light intensity. Living plant materials from the environment are naturally contaminated on their surfaces (and sometimes interiors) with microorganisms, so their surfaces are sterilized in chemical solutions (usually alcohol and sodium or calcium hypochlorite before suitable samples (known as explants) are taken. The sterile explants are then usually placed on the surface of a sterile solid culture medium, but are sometimes placed directly into a sterile liquid medium, particularly when cell suspension cultures are desired. Solid and liquid media are generally composed of inorganic salts plus a few organic nutrients, vitamins and plant hormones. Solid media are prepared from liquid media with the addition of a gelling agent, usually purified agar.

As cultures grow, pieces are typically sliced off and subcultured onto new media to allow for growth or to alter the morphology of the culture. The skill and experience of the tissue culturist are important in judging which pieces to culture and which to discard.

As shoots emerge from a culture, they may be sliced off and rooted with auxin to produce plantlets which, when mature, can be transferred to potting soil for further growth in the greenhouse as normal plants.

Banana Tissue Culture

Nursery Multiplication System

Plantlets of the 3-5 leaf stage are moved from the Ziploc plastic bags to polybags or to nursery beds.  If they are planted in polybags (24x18cm size), each is filled with a 2-kilo mixture of sieved soil, sand and manure in a 1:1:1 ratio.  NPK can be applied by time-release fertilizer, NPK at 5:20:5 ratios at the rate of 55/220/55 lbs. per acre is applied.  This is about two tablespoons per bag of 5:10:5 fertilizers.  Another method would be to apply urea (N=46.4%) = 0.05gm/polybags @ 25 kg N/ha; super phosphate (P2O5=16%)=0.59gm/polybags @ 100 kg P2O5/ha; and murate of potash (K2O = 56-60 %) = 0.04gm/polybags @ 25 kg K2O /ha; this is mixed in 30 ml of water / polybag.  This mixture as time release fertilizer is put in the planting hole just before inserting the plantlet at the time of planting.  The plantlets are then fertilized at monthly intervals with urea (N=46.4%) = 0.05gm/polybags @ 25 kg N/ha; super phosphate (P2O5=16%) = 0.59gm/polybags @ 100 kg P2O5/ha; and murate of potash (K2O = 56-60 %) = 0.12 gm/polybags @ 75 kg K2O/ha; this is mixed in 30 ml of water/polybag is applied as a top dressing.

The plantlets with all the additional tillers, the rhizome and roots are carefully removed from the nursery bed or polybags.  Each tiller along with a part of the rhizome and roots, are separated by cutting the rhizome with sharp pruners or heavy-duty scissors.  These are the new propagules and they must be kept in high humidity or water until planted in another polybag.  During this whole operation the plantlets must not dry out.  The expected multiplication is over five new polybags for every old polybag divided.  Out of this group, the smallest propagules are planted back in nursery beds or the selected polybags are kept to propagate more plantlets (500,000 bags).  The remainder (2,000,000 bags) is grown for field planting.  By end of July, 3-10 tillers have formed in these polybags and the process is ready to be repeated.

The multiplied tillers of (100,000) propagules are retained for the nursery, and the other (400,000+) plantlets are grown out for field planting next year.

This cycle can be repeated for several years but eventually new stock plantlets must be supplied from the laboratory or nursery.  The bamboo stock plants derived from this system remain relatively small, which conserves nursery space, and is an advantage in transport to the planting site, as well as, in handling in the nursery.

Weed and pest control

Weed management consists in removing the weeds that compete with the plants for resources and favor the development of parasites. Controlling weeds is particularly important in the first few months after plantation when the plants are small and there’s little shade. In commercial plantations where plants are grown on bare soil, sowing a ground cover can reduce the use of herbicides.

Weeds compete with productive crops or pasture, ultimately converting productive land into unusable scrub. Weeds can be poisonous, distasteful, produce burrs, thorns or otherwise interfere with the use and management of desirable plants by contaminating harvests.

A plant is often termed a “weed” when it has one or more of the following characteristics:

  • Little or no recognized value (as in medicinal, material, nutritional or energy)
  • Rapid growth and/or ease of germination
  • Competitive with crops for space, light, water and nutrients

Cultural and crop management

techniques provide a healthy crop to best compete with weeds. Crop competition can be an inexpensive and effective aid to weed management if used to its fullest advantage. Examples of cultural techniques include following soil test recommendations for fertilizer and lime; selecting the best crop varieties; planting dense crop populations at the proper timing; scouting fields regularly for weeds, insects, and diseases and controlling them when necessary; and including crop rotations in the system. Composting, ensiling, or feeding weeds or weed-infested crops to livestock can destroy the viability of weed seeds. The heat and/or digestive acids break down the majority of weed seeds. However, some seeds pass through livestock unharmed and can germinate if spread back onto the land.

Methods of controlling weeds


Laying black plastic, around the plants creates the greenhouse effect and kills the weeds around the plants or trees. The black plastic sheet is effective at preventing weeds that it covers, it is difficult to achieve complete coverage. Eradicating persistent perennials may require the sheets to be left in place for at least two seasons.

Another method of weed control includes covering the area of ground with a material that creates a hostile environment for weed growth, known as a weed mat. In some cases, dependent on the plants is to lay gravel around the trees.


Ploughing includes tilling of soil, intercultural ploughing and summer ploughing. Ploughing uproots weeds, causing them to die. In summer ploughing is done during deep summers. Summer ploughing also helps in killing pests. Mechanical tilling can remove weeds around crop plants at various points in the growing process.

Buried drip irrigation

Buried drip irrigation involves burying drip tape in the subsurface near the planting bed, thereby limiting weeds access to water while also allowing crops to obtain moisture. It is most effective during dry periods.

Organic” approaches

Organic weed control involves anything other than applying manufactured chemicals. Typically, a combination of methods is used to achieve satisfactory control.

On site administration

We handle the management of your forest plantation from start to finish. We replant old plantations from our nursery, select the appropriate species, and tailor nutrition and pest management programs.

Today’s investors want something more. Institutions and high net-worth individuals seek investments that provide not only diversification, predictability, and liquidity, but an assurance of professional integrity and social responsibility.

Plantations International is immersed in the plantation management process long before trees are even planted. We closely monitor every step to ensure rapid growth of high quality trees, fruits and vegetables. Our intensive oversight and deep knowledge of the field gives Plantations International associates the prime advantage.

Site Selection:

Before establishing a new plantation, we diligently select the right farm in terms of optimal conditions, regarding soil, water access, temperature, precipitation and light. Access to ports and minimal risk of natural disasters is also taken into consideration.

Plantation Establishment:

Once an ideal site is chosen, the land undergoes intensive preparation including among others, land preparation (land clearing, subsoiling, plowing and disking), drainage and irrigation/fertigation systems. We then use a proprietary concept regime, which stands as a point of reference for indication for planting and proceeding operations.

Active Management:

Our on-the-ground management team ensures proper irrigation and fertigation proceeding as well as the pruning, weed, insect and plagues control and that other silvicultural requirements are met. Plantations International also manages the commercial thinning and “farming” operations to achieve optimal efficiency.

Return Management:

In the business office, we work to ensure our longevity and profitability by negotiating long-term supply contracts and favorable shipping rates. In addition, we supplement the output of our forestry plantations with the production and marketing of plant-based energy sources such as biomass.

Standalone Power Systems for remote areas

A stand-alone power system (SAPS or SPS), also known as remote area power supply (RAPS), is an off-the-grid electricity system for locations that are not fitted with an electricity distribution system. Typical SAPS include one or more methods of electricity generation, energy storage, and regulation. Storage is typically implemented as a battery bank, but other solutions exist including fuel cells.

Electricity is typically generated by one or more of the following methods:

Photovoltaic system using solar panels

An obvious choice to supply electricity to remote and isolated areas is solar photovoltaic power. With the recent reduction in the cost of solar panels, solar electricity has become quite affordable and accessible. Peak solar irradiated power is greater than 1kW/m2, and though cheap solar panels have modest efficiency (~12%), it is still possible to harness considerable energy with this solid state technology. Solar electricity has the clear advantages of not requiring fuel, and simple maintenance. A basic direct current solar system can last over 20 years.

Diesel Generators:

The modern diesel generator has proven to be an exceptionally versatile and robust method of providing moderate amounts of electrical generation. From critical backup generators at hospitals and nuclear power plants to diesel-electric locomotives and ships, the high power-to-weight ratio and reliability of diesel generators has made them very popular. The fuel is relatively common and can be stabilized, and has high volumetric and weight energy density.

Cold Storage

Roughly 30% of food that is consumed in developing countries is perishable. Cold storage facilities are crucial to minimize post-harvest losses; however, losses occur at every step in the post-harvest cycle, and therefore cold storages cannot be considered as independent solutions to prevent post-harvest spoilage but as one component that needs to be integrated in a cold chain network from the point of harvest to the point of purchase by the end consumer.

The different stages in the post-harvest cycle can be summarized as:

  • harvest
  • precooling
  • transportation & packaging
  • cold storage

During these different stages, not only temperature control, but also proper and minimal handling of produce including handling, cleaning, sorting and adequate packing is crucial.

Each crop has specific requirements for storage. It is important to be aware of the ideal storage requirements of each crop and also how tolerant each crop is to a deviation to ideal storage conditions.

Cold Storage Management

Temperature control can have huge benefits for the improvement of shelf-life and product; however, benefits will only realize if the cold storage is managed properly with regards to temperature, relative humidity levels, air circulation, adequate space between storage bins, trays and containers, the mixing of compatible produce, as well as the management of product in and outflow which should follow the ‘First In, First Out’ principle.

Temperature management

Chilling injury

Some produce, especially of tropical origin, is sensitive to chilling, which means that it will incur physiological damages if stored at a certain time period below a certain temperature but above their freezing points. In general, the longer the time period that produce is exposed to temperature below their level of chilling sensitivity and the lower the temperature, the faster damages will occur. It should also be noted that effects can be of a cumulative nature, i.e. the time periods of storage below the level of chilling sensitivity add up even if produce is stored at optimal conditions in between. Several factors, such as the level of maturity and level of ripeness at the point of harvest can affect chilling sensitivity.

Common visual symptoms:

  • Surface lesions (pitting, large sunken areas and discoloration)
  • Water soaking (disruption of cell structure and accompanying release of substrate favors the growth of microorganisms)
  • Internal discoloration of the pulp
  • Failure to ripen in the expected pattern
  • Accelerated rate of senescence
  • Increased susceptibility to decay
  • Compositional changes

In-Field Temperature Management

Temperature management of perishable commodities begins with proper handling at harvest. Generally, produce should be harvested in the morning so that it will be at the coolest possible temperature during the delay between harvest and initial cooling. Exceptions to this recommendation are produce, such as some citrus fruit, that are damaged if they are handled when they are turgid in the morning), or situations in which the produce is harvested in the late afternoon so that it can be transported to a local market during the cool night hours. Produce should be shaded to protect it from solar heat gain. Reduce the time between picking and initial cooling; this is particularly critical because fruits and vegetables transpire and respire at high rates at field temperatures.

Initial Cooling Methods

Produce is usually cooled to its long-term storage temperature in special facilities designed to rapidly remove produce heat.

Forced-air cooling is the most widely adaptable method and is commonly used for many fruits, fruit-type vegetables, and cut flowers.

Hydro cooling

uses water as the cooling medium and is less widely used than forced-air cooling because some products do not tolerate water contact and because it requires the use of water-resistant packaging. It is commonly used for root-, stem-, and flower-type vegetables; melons; and some tree fruits.

Vacuum- and water spray vacuum-cooling

are usually reserved for crops, such as leafy vegetables, that release water vapor rapidly, allowing them to be quickly cooled.

Transport cooling

 in refrigerated ships and containers is used for products, such as bananas, in areas with no cooling infrastructure. Highway trailers have insufficient airflow to cool produce and should never be depended on for initial cooling.

Forced-Air Cooling

Refrigerated air is used as the cooling medium with this system. It is forced through produce packed in boxes or pallet bins. A number of airflow systems are used, but the tunnel cooler is the most common. Two rows of packages, bins, or palletized product are placed on either side of an air-return channel. A tarp is placed over the product and the channel, and a fan removes air from the channel, drawing air through the product. The product is cooled in batches. Cooling times range from 1 h for cut flowers to more than 6 h for larger fruit, packed in airflow-restricting materials such as bags or paper wraps.

The cold-wall system is adapted to cooling smaller quantities of produce.

Individual pallets or cartloads of packages are placed against a plenum wall. Usually the plenum has a slightly lower air pressure than the room, and air is pulled through the product. Some coolers, particularly for cut flowers, use a pressurized plenum and air is pushed through the product. Cold-wall systems do not use floor space as efficiently as tunnel coolers and require more management because each pallet is cooled individually.

Hydro cooling

is accomplished with this technique by moving cold water around produce with a shower system or by immersing produce directly in cold water. Shower coolers distribute water using a perforated metal pan that is flooded with cold water from the refrigeration evaporator. Shower-type coolers can be built with a moving conveyor for continuous flow operation, or they can be operated in a batch mode. Immersion coolers are suited for produce that sinks in water. They usually cool more slowly than shower coolers because water flows at slower rates past the product.

Water is a better heat-transfer medium than air, and consequently hydro coolers cool produce much faster than forced-air coolers. In well-designed shower coolers, small diameter produce, like cherries, cools in less than 10 min. Large diameter products like melons cool in 45 to 60 min. Immersion coolers usually have longer cooling times than shower coolers because water speed past produce is slower.

Packages for hydro cooled produce must allow vertical water flow and tolerate water contact. Plastic or wood containers work well in hydro coolers. Corrugated fiberboard must be wax-dipped to withstand water contact.

Hydro coolers cause no moisture loss in cooling. In fact, they can rehydrate slightly wilted produce. Hydro cooler water spreads plant decay organisms and thus must be obtained from a clean source and treated (usually with hypochlorous acid from sodium hypochlorite or gaseous chlorine) to minimize the levels of decay organisms.

Vacuum Cooling

This method achieves cooling by causing water to rapidly evaporate from a product. Water loss of about 1% causes 6 °C (11 °F) product cooling (Barger 1963). Product is placed in a steel vessel and vacuum pumps reduce pressure in the vessel from 760 mm Hg to 4.6 mm Hg).

Water boils at a pressure of 20 to 30 mm Hg depending on temperature. This causes rapid moisture evaporation and produce cooling. At the end of the cooling cycle, pressure equals 4.6 mm Hg and water boils at 0 °C (32 °F). If the product is held at this pressure long enough, it will cool to 0 °C (32°F). For produce that releases moisture rapidly, like leafy green vegetables, cooling can be accomplished in 20 to 30 min, even when the product is wrapped in plastic film. The produce loses 2 to 4% of its weight during cooling, depending on its initial temperature. Spraying the produce with water before cooling minimizes product moisture loss. Some coolers are fitted with water spray systems that are activated during the cooling cycle.

Services for setting up Internationally

Plantations International team of International business consultants can provide valuable help if you are trying to evaluate setting up offices, opening a new business and meeting the right people in a foreign company.

When companies attempt to move into countries that don’t have sophisticated market researchers or reliable supply chain partners, they find it difficult to deploy their business models. By contrast, the managers at Plantations International are on the ground around the world operating as local companies and know how to work around institutional voids because they’ve had years of experience doing so. Our familiarity with the local context allows Plantations International to identify and meet customers’ needs effectively.

Going Global

Doing business around the world can seem a long way from doing business in your hometown. But each year countless small businesses make the trek. Like most long journeys, going global can be boiled down to a series of steps. Here are the six basic steps to going global. Plantations International can help you make a fast start:

  • Start your campaign to grow by international expansion by preparing an international business plan to evaluate your needs and set your goals. It’s essential to assess your readiness and commitment to grow internationally before you get started.
  • Conduct foreign market research and identify international markets. The Department of Commerce is an excellent source of information on foreign markets for U.S. goods and services.
  • Evaluate and select methods of distributing your product abroad. You can choose from a variety of means for distributing your product, from opening company-owned foreign subsidiaries to working with agents, representatives and distributors and setting up joint ventures.
  • Learn how to set prices, negotiate deals and navigate the legal morass of exporting. Cultural, social, legal and economic differences make exporting a challenge for business owners who have only operated in the United States.
  • Tap government and private sources of financing-and figure out ways to make sure you are getting paid. Financing is always an issue, but government interest in boosting exporting and centuries of financial innovation have made getting funding and getting paid easier than ever.
  • Move your goods to their international market, making sure you package and label them in accordance with regulations in the market you are selling to. The globalization of transportation systems helps here, but regulations are still different everywhere you go.

The steps to starting a business in a foreign country

Starting a business in a foreign country might be easier than you think

There are ample opportunities in emerging markets for entrepreneurs and small (or large) business owners with a skill set that is distinct from that of the local population. Following are six key elements to take into consideration when starting a business that Plantations International can help you with.

Political Climate and Property Rights

Some countries around the world have a record of confiscating property and/or businesses owned by foreigners. You’ll probably want to steer clear of those countries. Others have impeccable histories with solid property rights and full access for foreigners. Finding a jurisdiction with minimal political risk is crucial.

Economic Situation

Countries with low debt-to-GDP ratios, low or declining unemployment, and strong consumer spending normally make for good prospects. A growing middle class, low inflation, and rising incomes are all positive signs. It’s definitely possible to form a profitable business in a country with a stagnating economy, but it very well may be an uphill battle.

Your Personal Knowledge of the Industry

It’s not always necessary to be an expert in the specific industry you’re looking to enter, but you should remember that bringing in managerial help will add to start-up costs. Partnering with a trustworthy local, who already has experience and contacts within a given industry, can definitely increase your likelihood of success. Finding situations where you have some skills to bring to the table (other than just start-up capital) are usually best.

Market Research

You’ll want to spend a significant amount of time analyzing local spending habits, as well as how much time, energy, and capital will be dedicated to marketing your products or services. If feasible, try setting up a trial run or conducting surveys before investing very much capital. Don’t overlook how much you’ll have to pay employees, nor what work habits are like in the country.

Language Barriers

If your business will cater to other foreigners, this might not be much of an issue. However, being able to easily converse with the local population will make launching your venture much more straightforward. If you’re not fluent in the language of your target country, you’ll need someone who has contacts on the ground in your country of choice and who can arrange meetings and translate for you on your side. Plantations International operates on 4 continents that English is not the language.

The Incorporation Process

The International Finance Corporation and the World Bank have a great page that compares the costs, amount of time, and number of procedures involved with forming a business in 183 countries around the world. The page is specifically for businesses with between 10 and 50 employees, but can be a helpful tool for those looking into both smaller and larger operations. Plantations International has all the experience to lead you through this process and can do it for you.

Starting your own business overseas will definitely require due diligence and careful consideration. Plantations International has several law firms internationally that we work with and can provide you a personal introduction.

JV partnerships

A Joint Venture (JV) can be an excellent vehicle for doing business in a foreign market, while sharing the start-up and operating risks — and profits — with a partner there. A JV can be just as profitable and successful as a wholly-owned subsidiary.

A company that wants to explore international trade without taking on the full responsibilities of cross-border business transactions has the option of forming a joint venture with a foreign partner. International investors entering into a joint venture minimize the risk that comes with an outright acquisition of a business. In international business development, performing due diligence on the foreign country and the partner limits the risks involved in such a business transaction.

International Joint Ventures (IJVs) aid companies to form strategic alliances, which allow them to gain competitive advantage through access to a partner’s resources, including markets, technologies, capital and people. International joint ventures are viewed as a practical vehicle for knowledge transfer, such as technology transfer, from multinational expertise to local companies, and such knowledge transfer can contribute to the performance improvement of local companies. Within IJVs one or more of the parties is located where the operations of the IJV take place and also involve a local and foreign company.

Plantations International is open to IJVs from small to large companies. Smaller companies with limited capital, manpower and the need to reduce and share risks may find a joint venture an ideal entry strategy in an overseas market. By utilizing the management skills, experience and knowledge of the foreign market by the local partner, a company can significantly reduce the learning curve and share its risks with a partner that has a similar agenda.

Many firms tend to choose joint ventures and strategic alliances as their method of international expansion. The primary reason for this is their need to satisfy the various government regulations, manpower, language and legal requirements in foreign countries.

Consulting services from Farms and orchids to plantations

Plantations International is an independent, international farm and plantation management company that provides focused advice and solutions to clients. Plantations International offers services from feasibility through to completion and IJVs.

We offer agricultural consulting and business service solutions that merge sound agronomic principles with economic business objectives. Our value proposition not only lies in agricultural consulting but also in business service solutions for agriculture. We focus on maximizing our customers’ rate of return consistent with cost-effective and sustainable agronomic practices.

We have our own farms, plantations, orchards and work with a wide range of customers:

  • Land developers and investors
  • Bioenergy crop plantations
  • Fruit, vegetable and field crop farms
  • Agarwood Plantations
  • Sandalwood plantations
  • Bamboo Plantations
  • Rice plantations
  • Mango plantations
  • Camelina plantations
  • Tea plantations
  • Hemps farms
  • Coconut plantations
  • Kiwi Fruit. Limes, olives, bananas, passion fruit, pineapple and sugar cane plantations
  • Cocoa plantations
  • Parks and gardens

Our Consulting Solutions

Leveraging our alliances of professional research institutes and academic institutions located globally, our agribusiness consulting solutions comprise:

Recommending best-use scenarios for land use, Strategic business planning, project feasibility and implementation.

Enhancing crop yield and quality through cost-effective crop management and production programs with GAP (Good Agricultural Practice) and Integrated Crop Management.

Increasing customer’s ROI (Return On Investment) through crop optimization programs of ongoing remedial treatments and mitigation strategies.

Facilitating links to consumer markets.

How can we help you adapt to these challenges?

Work with you to improve productivity and profitability with crop optimization solutions that are safe and environmentally-friendly

Explore options to create business through new crop technologies, uses or value chains

Provide regulatory advice on importing country regulations and facilitate links for export consumer markets

Gain access to international market knowledge, best practices and industry trends

Supply Chain Management

Plantations International provides inspection, testing, auditing, and risk management services across the entire agricultural supply chain. From seeds to crops, our team of experts perform independent assessments of quality and quantity of your agricultural products and processes.

Through our product expertise, Plantations International Services provides you with seamless support and is a strong business partner who can protect your interests across all levels of the agricultural value chain.

Our agricultural services are provided from soil to ship, and benefit the entire chain from seed producers and farmers to traders and processors worldwide.

Precision Farming

Plantations International precision farming includes expertise which can increase output, such as yield per hectare, while reducing costly inputs.

Plantations International Precision farming services:

  • Soil analysis to help manage soil fertility.
  • Soil physical properties measurement to help determine crop potential, tillage practice, as well as farm layouts.
  • Plant analysis to evaluate and manage the nutrient status of a crop during the growing season.
  • Water analysis to help determine risks involved in irrigation.
  • Plantations International farming experts gather this information, supplying useful data to help build an ideal environment for soil microorganisms to work effectively, increasing crop yields.

Precision farming helps to determine the right amount of fertilizer, at the right place, according to variable recommendations. Precision farming is an ideal solution to attract farming project investors requiring an attractive return on revenue, while managing your risk in crop production.

Plantations International precision farming expertise is both local and global. Capabilities and services include GPS soil mapping, soil sampling, and soil analysis of samples collected. After testing, Plantations International experts evaluate soil test results and offer useful recommendations, including modifications of variable spreader equipment to allow optimized variable rate applications of input supply, using electronic data guidelines. Precision farming management data pertaining to soil services is easily and confidentially accessed by the client.

Plantation Management and hiring services

All Plantations International plantations and farms are managed by trained personnel and overseen by our agriculturalist and agronomist who have highly interdisciplinary knowledge, crop scientists, specialize in the technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, fiber, and land reclamation. Our agriculturists have a good grasp of both natural sciences and social sciences, drawing on areas such as biology, environmental sciences, chemistry, economics and business and management. Our scope is both local and global.

At Plantations International plantations we hire local farmers, they already know how to farm and we train them on our systematic methodology to increase productivity, yields and profits. We build on their existing skills.

Plantations International Farm power embraces all forms of power inputs in agriculture and the commercialization of its products. We contribute to the local economy and to the household level. At the household level, Plantations International services provide for a number of benefits which include: reduced drudgery, increased income and improved food security

Plantations International unceasing commitment to all-inclusive sustainability encompasses working closely with and supporting the local communities in and around which the company operates, by providing investments in the communities as well as social and cultural support. All-inclusive sustainability at Plantations International embodies equal care and encouragement given to all members of staff; from top management all the way through to plantation workers and their families.

At Plantations International we are constantly hiring and training individuals to meet our needs and the needs of our outsourcing department for both labor and equipment. If you looking for a career in plantations, farming through to operational management please contact us. If you need our services for outsourcing, we have dedicated people around the world to meet your needs.


Promotions The crop is promoted to interested farmers through promoters by organizing seminars with power point presentations, interactions etc.
Cultivation guidelines Farmers are guided in agricultural methods by visiting their farms, providing cultivation manuals etc.
Seedlings Genetically-traced, better-quality-and-quantity-resinous-wood-producing variety seedlings are delivered to the planters’ doorsteps.

Research activates:

In house research: The company has in-house and an associated research wing engaged in the various aspects of agriculture and artificial inoculation technology development.
Collaboration research: The company has collaborations with many government forestry institutions and agriculture universities on the research and development of various agarwood aspects.
Updates from overseas partners: The company is associated with well-experienced overseas partners in the field of artificial inoculation and processing.

Government works:

Subsidies: Pursuing the government to sanction subsidies to farmers through schemes like the National Mission on Medicinal Plants, social forestry etc.
Harvesting permissions: Working on bringing the necessary changes to the current Tree Preservation Act so that agar trees are harvested, processed and sold as any other agricultural produce.
Export permissions: Preparation of necessary documents to get clearance from the government and CITES to enable exports.

Resinous wood production

Natural infection: The company promotes the crop wherein the trees are naturally drilled by insects and infected by fungus.
Traditional methods of production: The company is training farmers to apply traditional inoculation methods to their well-grown trees by themselves, to get better quality and save on cost as well.
Identification of tress: Based on requirement, the company identifies mature tress to be inoculated each year by discussing with farmers who wish to sell their produce.
Artificial inoculation: The company carries out artificial inoculation to trees to get a realistic price for its shareholders, and the market price for others.


The use of innovative technologies has improved the manufacturing of value-added agarwood products at Plantations Internationali. The company follows the multilevel processing system which comprises a primary processing unit, extraction factories and state-of-art facilities. The quality of the essence depends on the quality of wood, the agro-climatic conditions where trees are grown, and the extraction techniques adopted. The company accords utmost importance to proper pre- and post-harvesting techniques. Its farm tech division works closely with farmers to help them understand the quality requirements so that the customers are assured of only quality products.

Harvesting: The company identifies and advises farmers to harvest trees based on resin density, season, market requirement, price etc.
Primary processing: Depending on crop density, the company will set up processing units wherein agarwood is processed into different grades in the presence of farmers.
Extraction: Once the agarwood is processed into different grades of chips, they are either sold as chips or processed into agarwood oil.
State-of-art processing: Depending on costumers’ requirements, the company will follow various technologies. Agarwood from high grade resinous wood is extracted in state-of-art facilities.


Purchasing: Plantations International will purchase processed agarwood products at realistic rates based on international market prices.
Business development: Customer satisfaction is the company’s primary focus. It has established clients and is continually working on developing new clients as well.
Collaborations: Plantations International is associated with leading institutions from across the globe for the sale of its products.
Shipment: Plantations International will sell the products to domestic and international clients with proper legal documents and with standardized packaging and forwarding system.