Mangoes

The mango is a juicy stone fruit (drupe) belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees, cultivated mostly for edible fruit. The majority of these species are found in nature as wild mangoes. They all belong to the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is native to South Asia, from where it has been distributed worldwide to become one of the most cultivated fruits in the tropics. The center of diversity of the Mangifera genus is in India. While other Mangifera species (e.g. horse mango, Mangifera foetida) are also grown on a more localized basis, Mangifera indica—the “common mango” or “Indian mango” is the only mango tree commonly cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions
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Mango trees grow up to 35–40 m (115–131 ft) tall, with a crown radius of 10 m (33 ft). The trees are long-lived, as some specimens still fruit after 300 years. In deep soil, the taproot descends to a depth of 6 m (20 ft), with profuse, wide-spreading feeder roots; the tree also sends down many anchor roots, which penetrate several feet of soil. The leaves are evergreen, alternate, simple, 15–35 cm (5.9–13.8 in) long, and 6–16 cm (2.4–6.3 in) broad; when the leaves are young they are orange-pink, rapidly changing to a dark, glossy red, then dark green as they mature. The flowers are produced in terminal panicles 10–40 cm (3.9–15.7 in) long; each flower is small and white with five petals 5–10 mm (0.20–0.39 in) long, with a mild, sweet odor suggestive of lily of the valley. Over 400 varieties of mangoes are known, many of which ripen in summer, while some give double crop. The mango fruit takes three to six months to ripen.

The ripe mango fruit varies in size and color. Cultivars are variously yellow, orange, red, or green, and carry a single flat, oblong pit that can be fibrous or hairy on the surface, and which does not separate easily from the pulp. Ripe, unpeeled mangoes give off a distinctive resinous, sweet smell. Inside the pit 1–2 mm (0.039–0.079 in) thick is a thin lining covering a single seed, 4–7 cm (1.6–2.8 in) long. The seed contains the plant embryo. Mangoes have recalcitrant seeds; they do not survive freezing and drying.

Mango Facts

  • The mango is one of the most cultivated fruits in tropical areas of the world, it is native to the South Asian areas of Eastern India, Burma and the Andaman Islands.
  • Buddhist monks are believed to have introduced the mango to Malaysia and eastern Asia around the 5th century B.C. Legend has it that the God Buddha found tranquility and meditated under the cool shade of a mango tree.
  • The evergreen mango tree can grow as high as 35 – 40 m (115–130 ft.). They are a long living tree with some specimens having been known to still bear fruit after 300 years.
  • The flowers of a mango tree are small and white with five petals, and the fruit takes between three and six months to ripen.
  • Mango fruit can come in various shapes, size and color including yellow, orange, red and green.
  • Mangos contain many nutrients. The vitamin content depends on the variety and maturity of the fruit. When a mango is green and still growing there is a high vitamin C content, as the fruit ripens and matures the amount of beta carotene (vitamin A) increases.
  • Nearly half of the world’s mangoes are produced in India, but the country accounts for less than one percent of the international mango trade due to the fact India consumes most of its own production.
  • More fresh mangoes are eaten around the world every day than any other fruit.
  • Mangoes are a very common food used in a number of cuisines around the world especially in the tropics. The fruit is used in all types of meals and courses such as breakfast, lunch, dinner, dessert and used in refreshing juices.
  • Sour, unripe mangoes can be used in chutneys, pickles, as side dishes, or eaten raw on a stick dipped in salt, black pepper, chili, lime, or soy sauce.
  • Mango lassi is a very popular drink throughout South Asia, it is a combination of ripe mangoes or mango pulp with buttermilk and sugar. Aamras is also a popular thick juice made of mangoes with sugar or milk, and is often consumed with bread or rice. Mangoes are added to smoothies and as a topping on ice cream.
  • Mango salsa and chutney are very popular as accompaniments to salads, chicken, and fish or served as a snack.
  • Ripe mangoes are often used as an ingredient in curries.
  • The mango is the national fruit of India, Pakistan and the Philippines. It is also the national tree of Bangladesh.
  • In India and several other cultures, the mango fruit and leaves are ritually used as floral decorations at weddings, public celebrations and religious ceremonies.
  • Giving someone a basket of mangoes is considered a gesture of friendship.
  • Common mango varieties in countries such as the US and UK include: Tommy Atkins, Haden, Kent, Keitt, Ataulfo and Francis. In Asian countries such as India popular varieties include Alphonso, Benishaan, Kesar and Chaunsa.

manMango prices skyrocket in wholesale market

Plantations International Alphonso mango is a seasonal fruit, considered to be among the most superior varieties of the fruit in terms of sweetness, richness and flavor. It is also one of the most expensive varieties of mango. Each mango weighs between 150 and 300 grams (5.3 and 10.6 oz) From Wikipedia

ALPHONSO, THE king of mango varieties. Plantations International an authority on mango cultivation, and a pioneer in establishing plantations` has successfully demonstrated the promises held out by the superior mango variety `Alphonso’. “Mangos responded favorably to drip irrigation and organic inputs, and yielded high quality sweet fruits of attractive aroma,” explains Mr. Robert Timmermans of Plantations International.  “The alphonso variety is suited for high density planting, and it will make up for the low yields in the initial few years of bearing. The regular bearing commences from the ninth or tenth year of planting,” he points out. Every young plant is regularly manured in August with liberal quantities of ripe farmyard manure along with 400 g each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacterium. Drip irrigation to provide 25 litres of water per tree per day was established. All other regular orchard practices such as clipping the sprouts below the graft union, weeding and hoeing in the basins, and ploughing the interspaces and plant protection with eco-friendly botanical insecticides are adopted.

The quality of the fruits is of superior quality, and they are sweet and free of spongy tissues. The results were quite encouraging. The trees will yield as high as 4000 kg from the 1 hectares from the sixth year of planting, and it will fetch a handsome profit to the growers. As the tree grows, the yields will go up, and a thirty-year-old tree would produce as much as 2500 quality fruits. Alphonso is an excellent variety for export, and its value in the export market will go up significantly.

Alphonso mango is known as the “King of mango” because of its delicious tropically fruity sweet taste and juicy saffron/golden colored non-fibrous tender texture of its flesh. It has a significantly thinner shinier skin. Fully ripened Alphonso mangoes also release an aromatic fruity fragrance in the air.

Mango fruit (Mangifera indica), fresh,
Nutrition Value per 100 g
(Source: USDA National Nutrient data base)
Principle Nutrient Value Percentage of RDA
Energy 70 Kcal 3.5%
Carbohydrates 17 g 13%
Protein 0.5 g 1%
Total Fat 0.27 g 1%
Cholesterol 0 mg 0%
Dietary Fiber 1.80 g 4.5%
Vitamins
Folates 14 µg 3.5%
Niacin 0.584 mg 3.5%
Pantothenic acid 0.160 mg 1%
Pyridoxine (vit B-6) 0.134 mg 10%
Riboflavin 0.057 mg 4%
Thiamin 0.058 mg 5%
Vitamin C 27.7 mg 46%
Vitamin A 765 IU 25.5%
Vitamin E 1.12 mg 7.5%
Vitamin K 4.2 µg 3.5%
Electrolytes
Sodium 2 mg 0%
Potassium 156 mg 3%
Minerals
Calcium 10 mg 1%
Copper 0.110 mg 12%
Iron 0.13 mg 1.5%
Magnesium 9 mg 2%
Manganese 0.027 mg 1%
Zinc 0.04 mg 0%
Phyto-nutrients
Carotene-ß 445 µg
Carotene-a 17 µg
Crypto-xanthin-ß 11 µg
Lutein-zeaxanthin 0 µg
Lycopene 0 µg
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Introduction to Mango Farming

The mango is a juicy stone fruit and belong to the family of “Anacardiaceae” and genus of “Mangifera”. Mangoes have been grown in South Asia for thousands of years & reached East Asia between the 5th and 4th centuries. Mango is one of the top fruit crops of India and other Asian countries. Mango fruit is called the king of fruits. Mangos are delicious, excellent flavour and attractive fragrance, these fruits are good source of vitamin ‘A’ and Vitamin ‘C’. Mango trees are hardy in nature, can be grown in a wide-range of soils and require comparatively low maintenance. These fruits can be utilized at all stages of its development. Raw mangoes are used for making chutney (pickle) and juices. The ripe mangos can be used in preparing desert, squashes, syrups, nectars, jellies and jams. This fruit kernel also contains 8 to 10 % good quality fat which can be used for soap and also as a substitute for cocoa butter in confectioneries. Commercial cultivation of mango crop is very much successful in southEast Asia. Mango trees can be grown in pots, back yards, greenhouses and poly houses as well.

Climate Requirements

Mangos can be cultivated in both tropical and sub-tropical regions from sea level to 1500 meter altitude, provided there is no high humidity, rain or frost during the flowering stage. Having good rainfall and dry summer is best suitable conditions to grow mangos. Avoid areas with high winds and cyclones which may cause flowers and fruits shedding and breaking of branches.

Soil Requirements

Mango fruits can be cultivated on wide variety of soils from alluvial to laterite. The soil should be well-drained and deep (minimum of 6′). Mango trees prefer slightly acidic soils with pH 5.5 to 8.0.

Mango Propagation

Vegetative method ( true to type plants from recognized nurseries) of propagation is most recommended one. Mango can be propagated by seeds, Inarching, veneer grafting, side grafting and epicotyl grafting.

Land Preparation, Planting and Spacing

Plough the land couple of times until the fine-tilth stages is achieved followed by harrowing and leveling. Prepare the soil in such a way that the excessive water will drain-out quickly. Generally Spacing between plants varies from variety to variety. In less growth areas (dry zones), a spacing of 10 meter x 10 meter is preferred whereas in regions with heavy rainfall and rich soils where abundant vegetative growth occurs, a spacing of 12 meter x 12 meter is recommended. Dwarf hybrid mango varieties can be spaced at 5 meter x 5 meter. Pits should be filled with original soil mixed with 25 kg well rotten farmyard manure, 2.0 to 2.5 kg single super phosphate and 1 kg muriate of potash. One year old healthy, straight growing grafts from reliable nurseries should be planted at the centre of pits dug along with the ball of the earth intact during rainy season so that the roots will not be expanded and the graft union will be above the ground level. Mango plants should be irrigated immediately after planting in the field. In the initial 1 or 2 years, it is recommended to provide some shade to the young mango plants and also stake to make them grow straight direction.

Manures and Fertilizers

Usually, 160 gm to 175 grams of urea, 115 grams of single super phosphate and 115 grams of muriate of potash/plant/year should be applied from age from 1 st to 10th year and thereafter 1.6 kg, 1.1 kg, and 1.15 kg respectively of these fertilizers per plant per year should be applied in 2 equal split doses (June to July and October). In sandy areas, foliar spray of 3% urea is recommended before flowering.

Irrigation

Irrigation should be given immediately after transplanting the mango plants in the main field. Young mango plants/seedlings should be irrigated frequently for proper establishment in the soil. Irrigation can be carried out at an interval of 8 to 12 days from fruit set to maturity to result in higher crop yield. Irrigation is not recommended for 2 to 3 months prior to flowering as it is likely to promote vegetative growth and impacts the yield. Drip irrigation is preferred in mango cultivation.

Intercropping

Farmers can utilize the interspaces between mango rows and make extra income. Inter-crops like any vegetables, legumes, papaya, guava, plum and peach can be cultivated depending on the agro-climatic conditions of the area. It is important to note that the water and nutrient requirements of inter crops are separate from mango tree requirements.

Intercultural Operations

As part of pruning and training activity, an about 1 meter from the base on the main trunk of the mango plant should be kept free from branching. The main stem can be allowed thereafter spaced at 20 to 25 cm apart to allow growing in different directions. Branches which cross over/rub each other should be removed at pencil thickness. Dried and diseased branches should be removed from the mango trees. Weeds can be controlled by weedicides and mulching.

Pests and Diseases

Mango fruits are prone to damages caused by a large number of pests, diseases. The following are most common pests and diseases and their control measures.

  • Mango Hopper: 2 sprays (at panicles emergency and at pea size of fruits) of carbaryl (0.15%), monocrotophos (0.04%) or phosphamidan (0.05).
  • Mealy-Bug: Ploughing inter spaces in November and dusting 2% methyl parathion @ 200 gram per tree near the trunk and fixing 20 cm wide 400 gauge polythene strips around the trunk with grease applied on the lower edge in January as prophylactic measures and 2 sprays of monocrotophos (0.04%) at 2 weeks interval as control are needed.
  • Powdery Mildew: 2 to 3 sprays of wettable sulphur (0.2%) or Karathane (0.1%) at 12 to 15 days interval.
  • Anthracnose: 2 sprays of Bavistin (0.1%) at fortnight interval.
  • Malformation: 1 spray of 200 ppm NAA in October followed by de-blossoming at bud burst stage in December – January.
  • Fruit Drop: Regular irrigation during fruit development, timely and effective control of pests and diseases and spraying 20 ppm NAA at pea size of fruits can prevent the fruit drop.

Harvesting and Yields

Generally, graft plants start bearing mango fruits at the age of 3 to 4 years (10-20 fruits) to give optimum crop from 10 to 15th year which continues to increase up to the age of 40 years under good mango farm management

Post-Harvesting Activities

Shelf life of mangoes is short (2 to 3 weeks), hence they should be cooled as soon as possible to storage temperature of 12°C. Steps involved in post-harvest handling are preparation, grading, washing, drying, waxing, packing, pre-cooling, palletisation and marketing. Mangoes should be packed in corrugated fibre board boxes sizes of 40 cm x 30 cm x 20 cm. Mangos should be packed in single layer 8 to 15 fruits per carton. The boxes should have sufficient number of air holes which is an about 8% of the surface area to allow good ventilation and prevent from damage.

Marketing Your Mango Farm

Usually, many fruit agents will come to your farm to buy in bulk. The fruits also can be transported to local markets. Even some farmers give the total farm on lease base for each crop.

The Bottom Line in Mango Farming

Farmers can get pretty decent profits in mango farming, provided they follow the good farm management practices. There are some schemes and loans available for mango farming. For complete details,contact nearest bank or any financial institutions or agriculture department.

To find out more about how Plantations International can help you develop and manage your own mango plantation and to receive a free initial consultation, please call us today on +852 5808 3775 or Click Here to contact your nearest Plantations International representative.